ISSN 1678-2305 online version
Scientific Article
Pre-gelatinized starch and dextrin help in the gelatinization of patties without adding heat to
improve texture. Aiming to evaluate the effect of the addition of pre-gelatinized starch and dextrin in
Flávia Renata Potrich Signor1
the preparation of mechanically separated meat patties obtained from Nile tilapia filetage residues.
Gislaine Silveira Simões2
An experimental planning of the rotational central Composite Design (DCCR) 2 2 with 4 axial points
with 9 formulations and 4 replications at the central point was applied, totaling 12 assays. A base
Priscila Ferri Coldebella
formulation is developed to be applied in the design with different levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3%) According
to the planning (DCCR), pre-gelatinized starch and dextrin. A regression model was developed for
Arcangelo Augusto Signor4
the variable Shear Force response (texture). Analyses of chemical composition, Aw, ph, texture and
Wilson Rogério Boscolo1
scanning microscopy and sensory analyses were performed. For the development of the patties the
best result was for 1.5% of pre-gelatinized starch and 1.0% dextrin. Thus, the use of mechanically
separated meat with the addition of pre-gelatinized starch and dextrin to produce restructured
products is of great importance for the fish industry, as it improves the texture of the breaded
presented a Greater acceptance by consumers.
Key words: nutritional characteristics; pasty texture; acceptability; restructured products.
1Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná - UNIOESTE,
Departamento de Engenharia de Pesca, Rua da
Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-160, Toledo, PR, Brasil.
E-mail: (corresponding
2Instituto Federal do Paraná - IFPR, Departamento de
Gastronomia, Av. Araucária, 780, Vila A, CEP 85860-000,
Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil.
Amido pré-gelatinizado e dextrina auxiliam na gelatinização de empanados e melhoram a textura
Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana -
sem uso de calor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de amido pré-gelatinizado
UNILA, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Av. Silvio
e dextrina na preparação de empanados de carne mecanicamente separada obtida a partir de
Américo Sasdelli, 1842, Vila A, CEP 85866-000, Foz
resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo. Foi aplicado um planejamento experimental do tipo
do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil.
delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR) 22 com 4 pontos axiais, sendo 9 formulações
e 4 repetições no ponto central, totalizando 12 ensaios. Sendo desenvolvido uma formulação
4Instituto Federal do Paraná - IFPR, Departamento
base para ser aplicado no delineamento com diferentes níveis (0, 0,5, 1, 2, 3%) de acordo com
de Engenharia de Aquicultura, Av. Araucária, 780,
o planejamento (DCCR), de amido pré-gelatinizado e dextrina. Foi desenvolvido modelo de
Vila A, CEP 85860-000, Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil.
regressão para a variável resposta força de cisalhamento (textura). Foram realizadas análises
de composição química, Aw, pH, textura e microscopia de varredura e análises sensorial. Para o
desenvolvimento dos empanados o melhor resultado foi adição de 1,5% de amido pré-gelatinizado
e 1,0% dextrina. Desta forma, o aproveitamento da carne mecanicamente separada com adição
de amido pré-gelatinizado e dextrina para a produção de produtos reestruturados mostrou-se
Received: March 01, 2019
de grande importância para a indústria do pescado, pois melhorou a textura dos empanados
Approved: July 30, 2019
apresentado uma maior aceitação por parte dos consumidores.
Palavras-chave: características nutricionais; textura de empanados; aceitabilidade; produtos
Aquaculture and fisheries are important activities in the production of food, employment
and income for several people (Santos et al., 2014; Lustosa-Neto et al., 2018). Among
consumed fish species, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has a great potential in the
economic activity (Lago et al., 2016) being marketed as whole fish, fresh cuts, or frozen
fillets, however, consumers show a preference in the consumption of fillets (Oliveira
Filho et al., 2012). Thus, tilapia processing industries utilize only fillets and discard
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
the backbone, ventral abdominal muscle, deep hypaxial muscle,
meet industrial requirements and consumer acceptability (Pedroso
and fillet final shavings to be used in the further production of
and Demiate, 2008; Cavenaghi-Altemio et al., 2013).
fish meal for animal feed (Vidal et al., 2011).
The pregelatinized starch is a modified product; it is precooked
However, the meat adhered to the spinal column has nutritional
and dried by manufacturers and reconstituted in water to provide
characteristics that can be used through mechanical separation
viscosity (Pongjaruvat et al., 2014). Therefore, it is an alternative
generating the material called mechanically separated meat - MSM
to promote agglutination, improving thickening, texture, stability,
CMS (Kirschnik and Macedo-Viegas, 2009; Palmeira et al., 2016;
and sensation to the palate besides reducing the absorption of oil
Magalhães et al., 2019). The nutritional characteristics of MSM
(Altunakar et al., 2004).
show great variation as the result of variations in its production
Another alternative ingredient in the formulation of breaded
process. Kirschnik and Macedo-Viegas (2009); Freitas et al. (2012);
patties is dextrin. Dextrin has a wide variety of applications such
Kirschnik et al. (2013); Fogaça et al. (2015) report varying values
as in the production of adhesive, food, textiles, and cosmetics
in moisture (62.17 to 79.84%), crude protein (9.75 to 15.87%),
(Mason, 2009), and drugs (Takatori et al., 2011). Dextrins are
lipids (2.91 to 18.81%), and mineral matter (1.00 to 2.11%).
a class of low molecular weight carbohydrates and represent a
Nevertheless, the transformation of these residues into products
mixture of polymers of D-glucose (α-1.4) produced by the partial
for human consumption is a great alternative for the utilization of
hydrolysis of starch (Silva et al., 2014). Its structure is similar
tilapia residues (Vidal et al., 2011; Freitas et al., 2012), besides
to that of starch; however, it is smaller and less complex. It is
reducing the deposition of organic waste in the environment
widely used as food additives (Manchun et al., 2014) because
improving the concept of sustainability (Magalhães et al., 2019),
it reduces viscosity resulting in the conservation of crunchiness
as occurs in other productive chains of chickens, pigs and cattle
in the product for longer periods after frying (Sanz et al., 2004;
(Lustosa-Neto et al., 2018).
Manchun et al., 2014).
One of the main challenges of the food industry is to produce
Thus, was evaluated in this study the addition of pregelatinized
convenience foods with additional nutritional value, accessible
starch and dextrin in the formulation of patties using mechanically
and sensory cost properties (Monteiro et al., 2018), and easiness of
separated meat obtained from fillet residues of Nile tilapia.
preparation, which has led the fish processing industry to develop
alternative products such as hamburgers and breaded patties among
others, in order to market pre-prepared products that are called
restructured products produced from MSM (Vieira et al., 2015).
Therefore, besides minimizing the wasteful use of residues, the
Raw material
industry, guarantees increased added value to these products.
Tilapia mechanically separated meat (Brazilian Indústria e
Patties are among these widely consumed alternative products.
Comércio de Peixes Ltda, Toledo/PR, Brazil), pregelatinized
According to the technical standards of the Brazilian quality and
starch and dextrin (GTfoods, Quatro Pontes/PR, Brazil), hondashi®
identity (Brasil, 2001b), breaded patties are industrialized meat
(Ajinomoto, São Paulo/SP, Brazil), sodium erythorbate (Pryme
products obtained from meat and/or MSM from different animal
Foods, Sorocaba/SP, Brazil), tripolyphosphate (Saber Química,
species, processed into pulp with the addition of other ingredients,
Barueri/SP, Brazil), dehydrated onion and garlic, white pepper
and subjected to an appropriate heat treatment.
(Kitano, São Paulo/SP, Brazil), sodium chloride (Cisne, São
The formulation of patties should contain at least 30% of the
Paulo/SP, Brazil), and flour for breading (Baptistella, Itatiba/SP,
designated raw material, except in the case of liver where the
Brazil) were used in the formulation of patties.
threshold may be 20%; optional ingredients may be incorporated
such as salt, vegetable proteins, sugars, maltodextrins, starch,
seasonings, spices, and aromas among others (Freitas et al., 2012).
Obtaining the raw material
The fish is a functional and highly nutritious food (Sousa et al.,
Tilapia carcasses were used for processing MSM after filleting
2019). A maximum of 30% of total carbohydrates and a minimum
and excluding the head, viscera, trimmings, and fins; the excess
of 10% of protein, being 4% of non-meat protein, should be in
of fat was removed through a ventral cut. Subsequently, the MSM
the chemical composition of patties (Brasil, 2001b).
was subjected to a washing process in a low-speed centrifuge
Hence, the food industry in this sector has been looking for
(Engelmac, Brazil) with 5 ppm of chlorinated water for 5 minutes,
alternative ingredients, such as tilapia MSM that can improve the
cooled down in a cold room, and submitted to a depulper (MT 250,
nutritional and sensorial quality of its products.
Hich Tech, Brazil) to obtain the MSM, and frozen at -18 °C ± 2 °C.
Starch is among the main ingredients in the preparation of patties
because it improves the sensory aspects of texture and flavor
Pre-treatment of raw material
(Zhang and Barbut, 2005). Starch is a polysaccharide extracted
from edible parts of plants (Raphaelides et al., 2012). It is used
The MSM was thawed in a refrigerator (6 ± 2°C) for 12 hours
in the food industry as a thickener facilitating the processing and
and subjected to the pressing process with the aid of a screw
providing increased texture to the product (Sharma et al., 2008).
press (Etiel Gramado/Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil); batches were
In addition, because it has good sensory characteristics and water
standardized as 1.5 kg. An initial manual force was applied for
affinity, it is widely used in the meat industry due to its low cost
5 minutes for the initial blood and water loss, followed by another
and features that are appropriate for specific technologies that
5 minutes.
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
Experimental design
Preparation of tilapia MSM patties
In order to evaluate the effect of pregelatinized starch and
The following ingredients were combined in the formulation
dextrin in the formulation of tilapia MSM patties, the Rotational
of tilapia MSM patties: textured soy protein (2%) and ice (16%)
Central Compound Design (RCCD) was applied consisting of a
were firstly mixed in an electric processor (RI7620/71, Philips,
complete 22 factorial experimental design, 4 axial points, and
Brazil) for homogenization, followed by the addition of sodium
4 repetitions at the central point, totaling 12 assays representing
erythorbate (0.20%), tripolyphosphate (0.15%), dehydrated onion
9 different formulations (Table 1). The effect of the concentrations
(0.20%), dehydrated garlic (0.15%), dehydrated rosemary (0.03%),
of pregelatinized starch and dextrin on the texture (shear force)
dehydrated parsley (0.10%), sodium (1.30%), and hondashi®
of tilapia MSM patties and the ideal percentage of pregelatinized
(1.5%), and white pepper (0.03%). The MSM (approximately 78%
starch and dextrin were verified with this experimental design.
of the total formulation), pregelatinized starch, and dextrin were
The independent variables (starch and dextrin levels) and
subsequently added according to the RCCD schedule (Table 2).
levels of variation in the planning were defined according to
This final mixture was manually homogenized for 5 minutes.
(Vieira et al., 2015).
The patties were shaped manually with the aid of a rectangular
The experiments were performed in a random order (Table 2)
cast with 1.1 cm in height, 2.5 cm in width, and 6 cm in length
based on the matrix with the coded, and real values used to
to maintain product size uniformity. Patties were submitted to a
perform the tests in this RCCD.
pre-coating process in white flour, immersed in a coating liquid,
and coated in bread flour.
The second-order model used to adjust the response of independent
variables is presented in Equation 1:
To calculate the minimum and maximum percentages of pick up,
five samples of each formulation were separated, and the patties’
Y = β
weight uniformity were calculated according to (Gonçalves, 2011)
using Equation 2:
where: Y is the expected response (shear force in Newton); Xi is
P -P
Pick up(% =
the percentage of pregelatinized starch, and Xj is the percentage
of dextrin; are input variables xi (i= 1, 2...k) influence the
where: Pf is the final coated weight (g), and Pi is the initial
response Y; k is the number of variables; β0 is the constant term
uncoated weight (g).
intersection; βi is the ia linear coefficient; βii is the ia quadratic
coefficient; βij (j= 1, 2...k) interaction coefficient, and ϵ is the
The patties were pre-fried in vegetable oil soybean (180 °C ± 5 °C)
model prediction error.
for 30 seconds using a fryer with a screen; the oil temperature was
Table 1. Rotational Central Compound Design (RCCD) to formulation of tilapia MSM patties.
(X1) Starch composition (%)
(X2) Dextrin composition (%)
Table 2. Matrix Rotational Central Compound Design (RCCD) and shear force response.
Shear Force (N)
Starch (%)
Dextrin (%)
Standard deviation
0.5 (-1)
0.5 (-1)
0.5 (1)
2.0 (+1)
2.0 (1)
0.5 (-1)
2.0 (1)
2.0 (1)
0.0 (-1.41)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
0.0 (-1,41)
1.0 (0)
3.0 (1,41)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
1.0 (0)
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
monitored with a digital thermometer (TP 3001, China). These
microscopy (Philips/FEI, Quanta 200, USA). A metallizer
pre-fried samples were packed in polyethylene bags and stored
(Sputtering BAL-TEC, SCD 050 sputter coater, USA) was
in a household freezer (-10 to -8°C) until analysis.
used for the coating process with gold powder when the sample
Baked patties were prepared using frozen patties placed in a gas
was deposited on a double carbon tape over an aluminum plate
oven (FLG 700, G. PANIZ, Brazil) at 200 °C ± 5 °C for 15 minutes
and placed in a vacuum chamber containing argon. The gold
on each side. A skewer thermometer (TP 3001, digital thermometer,
bombardment was carried out at 40 V for 98 s of deposition to
China) was used to ensure that the cooking temperature in the
obtain approximately 15 mm of layer thickness.
geometric center of patties reached a minimum and maximum
temperature of 72 °C and 75 °C, respectively.
Sensory analysis
The yield was determined by the average weight of 5 samples
This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee
of each formulation. The yield of each formulation was calculated
with Human Beings of the West Paraná State University under
according to Equation 3 (Berry, 1992).
certificate nº 61654016.9.0000.0107.
The sensory analysis was performed in tilapia MSM patties and
determined by the results from the statistical model and a control
sample (1 with and 2 without pregelatinized starch and dextrin).
where: Pf is the final baked weight (g), and Pi is the initial weight
The Hedonic Scale Test of 1 to 9 points (I highly disliked
before baking (g).
it to I greatly liked it) was applied to evaluate the attributes
of appearance, aroma, taste, texture, and overall impression.
Texture analysis
The purchase intention test of 1 to 5 points (I would certainly not
buy the product to I would certainly buy the product) was applied
The patties texture is directly related to the shear force.
to 76 untrained testers according to Dutcosky (2015). All samples
A texturometer (TAHD pluse, TATX-2i, Brazil) with a Warner
received a coded number and tasters were given water to clean
Bratzler probe and a 5 kg load cell was used to evaluate the patties
taste buds between tests.
shear force. The patties were baked in an electric oven (FLG 700,
G. PANIZ, Brazil) at 200 °C for 15 minutes on each side and
cooled to room temperature. The cutting speed was 2.0 mm/s with
Statistical analysis
a 35.00 mm thickness; the results were expressed in Newton (N).
The data were submitted to the analysis of normality and
homoscedasticity and, considering these assumptions, were
Chemical characterization of tilapia MSM patties
submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the significance
level of 5% was performed to evaluate the difference in chemical
Proximal composition, pH, and water activity were analyzed
characteristics between tilapia MSM in natura and pressed in patties
in tilapia MSM in natura and pressed in patties.
and the effects of the addition of starch and dextrin. The RCCD
The methodologies adopted by the AOAC (2000) were used for
experimental model was analyzed by the correlation coefficient
the analysis of proximal composition (dry matter, mineral matter,
(R) of the polynomial equation generated in the model, and the
lipids, and crude protein). The nitrogen conversion factor used
statistical significance was verified by the Fischer’s F-test at
for the crude protein analysis was 6.25.
the significance level of 5%. The significance of correlation
The pH was verified in 10 g of sample homogenized in 50 mL
coefficients was tested by the Student’s t-Test. The response
of distilled water using a pH meter (mPA 210, Tecnopon, Brazil).
surface and the contour response of the predicted model were
The water activity (Aw) was measured using a water activity
used to evaluate the interactive relationships between significant
analyzer (Labswift, Novasina, Brazil).
variables. The Derringer desirability function was used to estimate
the best starch and dextrin concentrations in the tilapia MSM
Microbiological analysis
patties formulation. The desirability function allowed estimating
the operating conditions that guarantee to fulfill the criteria for all
The microbiological quality of tilapia MSM and patties obtained
involved responses, and at the same time provided the best joint
under optimized conditions was analyzed. Counts of coagulase
response of the studied factors (Candioti et al., 2014).
positive Staphylococci, Salmonella sp., and coliforms were
All the statistical analyses in this study were carried out using
performed at 45 °C according to Brasil (2001a).
the software STATISTICA version 8.0 (StatSoft, 2007).
Analyzes using scanning electron microscopy
Microscopic analysis was conducted in an emulsion of Tilapia
MSM patties obtained under optimized conditions of pregelatinized
Characterization of MSM
starch and dextrin concentrations and in control samples (Tilapia
MSM patties without pregelatinized starch and dextrin), both
Table 3 shows the results of the proximal composition of
before the breading process.
in natura and pressed MSM. Significant changes occurred in the
These samples were previously lyophilized (Lyophilizer L101,
MSM composition after the pressing process reducing moisture
Liobras, Brazil) for 48 hours and analyzed by scanning electron
content and pH and concentrating protein and lipids contents.
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
Table 3. Centesimal composition of in natura and pressed MSM.
Concentric Nutrients
pressed MSM
in natura MSM
Moisture (%)
Crude Protein (%)
Lipids (%)
Mineral Matter (%)
Water Activity
*The nutrients concentration was calculated considering natural matter 100%; (p-value <0.05); **Significant at the 95% confidence level; the treatments differ statistically;
nsNot significant at the 95% confidence level; the treatments are statistically similar; MSM = mechanically separated meat.
Table 4. Variables effects and variance analysis (ANOVA) of RCCD experimental.
(1) Starch (%) (L)
starch (%) (Q)
(2) Dextrin (%) (L)
Dextrin (%) (Q)
1L by 2L
*The parameters are parameters are significant (p-value <0.05) for 95% confidence level. 1SE = experimental standard error; QS = quadratic sum; fd = freedom degrees;
QM = quadratic mean, 1L by 2L = starch and dextrin interaction; F = F calculated.
Effect of the addition of pregelatinized starch and
dextrin on the formulation of tilapia MSM patties
Table 2 shows the results of the effect of the addition of starch
and dextrin on the shear force (N) of patties according to the
RCCD experimental design.
This variation is presented in Table 4, which demonstrated
that the pregelatinized starch composition presents a significant
effect (p-value <0.05) on the shear force of tilapia MSM patties
while dextrin did not significantly influence this parameter.
The variation observed in the shear force values was between
9.30 N and 16.56 N suggesting that the planning was important
for improving the texture of tilapia MSM patties.
An objective response function, given for shear force, was
generated through the planning that represents the statistical
model demonstrated in Equation 4:
= 15 946 + 0 066 X
Figure 1. Response surface for shear force.
where: X1 is the pregelatinized starch content (%), and X2 is the
dextrin content (%).
The Derringer’s desirability function allowed the estimation
Thus, the surface response graph was generated from the objective
of the desirable levels of pregelatinized starch and dextrin in the
function for shear force (Figure 1). The surface response graph
formulation of tilapia MSM patties (Figure 2). The optimum
shows that there is a favorable or optimal region (dark red region)
shear force value of 15.95 N was observed when using 1.5% of
to obtain tilapia MSM patties with shear force close to 15 N.
starch and 1.5% of dextrin.
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
Figure 2. Estimated desirability parameters for the % starch and % dextrin variables for the shear force.
Characterization of patties
Sensory analysis
After the model validation, the proximal composition of tilapia
The microbiological quality of the patties was evaluated before
MSM patties obtained within the optimum concentration of
the application of the sensory analysis. The results were within
pregelatinized starch and dextrin was determined. The results
the values advocated in the current legislation for processed
showed that the patties presented values of moisture (50.54%),
foods (Brasil, 2017), and therefore, the processing of the tilapia
crude protein (12.00%), carbohydrates (15.74%), lipids (18.41%),
MSM patties was conducted under good hygienic-sanitary
mineral matter (3.45%), water activity (0.96), and pH (6.69) within
the required values by the current legislation (Brasil, 2001b).
The patties prepared with the optimized formulation (1.5%
starch and 1.0% dextrin) and the control patties (no addition of
Scanning electron microscopy
starch and dextrin) presented scores above 7 (I liked regularly)
The electron micrographs (Figure 3) obtained by scanning
and close to 8 (I liked it a lot) in the hedonic scale considering
electron microscopy (SEM) correspond to the control formulations
all analyzed attributes (appearance, flavor, aroma, texture, and
(tilapia MSM patties without starch and dextrin) and the center
overall impression), the results of the purchase intention analysis
point (tilapia MSM patties with the addition of 1.5% starch and
showed a score above 4 (I would possibly buy it) and 5 (I would
1.0% dextrin).
certainly buy it) (Figure 4).
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
Figure 3. Scanning electron microscopy of tilapia MSM patties. (A) and (B) Control without starch and dextrin; (C) and (D) contents
of 1.5% starch and 1.0% dextrin.
Characterization of MSM
The MSM presented a high pH value when compared to the
Brazilian legislation value, for fresh fish which is 6.8 (Brasil,
2002). The pH value can be explained due to the presence of
large amounts of water in the meat, being considered as a highly
perishable product. For the contents of water activity shows that are
highly perishable foods and should be stored under refrigeration.
According to Kurade and Baranowski (1987), the ruptures and
damages of muscle tissue during the process of MSM extraction
lead to the exposure to the activity of intramuscular enzymes,
blood, pigments, and oxygen. Thus, the MSM must be processed
as quickly as possible and kept frozen until its use because
Figure 4. Hedonic scale notes of acceptance of optimized
reactions that induce oxidative changes continue to occur even
formulation (central point - with 1.5% pregelatinized starch and
at low temperatures (Rebouças et al., 2012).
1.0% dextrin) and control sample patties (control - without addition
of pregelatinized starch and dextrin). For purchase intention the
Therefore, the pressing process improved the MSM composition
scale was adjusted to be inserted in the graph.
due to the elimination of water, blood, and the concentration of
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
protein and fat content, improving the nutritional and sensorial
The minimum and maximum percentage of pick-up added
characteristics of the product.
were 21.21 and 25.62, pre-defined to maintain uniformity in the
patties’ weight (Gonçalves, 2011); these values did not exceed
Before proceeding to the preparation of patties, it was verified
the limit of 30% of carbohydrates in patties.
that the MSM presented adequate microbiological quality,
complying with the current legislation for foods (Brasil, 2017).
The breading process increases the shelf life of products
by delaying oxidation and consequently, rancidity, protecting
the meat against cold burning during the process of freezing
Effect of the addition of pregelatinized starch and
(Dill et al., 2009).
dextrin on the formulation of tilapia MSM patties
The value of 18.41% lipids observed in the patties was justified
The pregelatinized starch quadratically influenced the shear force
by the high content of lipids in the used raw material (23.63%).
indicating the existence of a maximum point for the parameter
The lipid content in fish for human diet is considered an important
texture. Thus, a relationship between pregelatinized starch and
component when compared to other foods of plant or animal
water was observed.
origin (Palmeira et al., 2016).
According to WHO (1998) reports, starch granules swell slightly
The observed mineral matter contents showed an increase when
(10 to 20%) when in contact with cold water because as the result
compared to the used raw material. This increase is related to the
of water absorption.
addition of salt and the hondashi food enhancer.
Altunakar et al. (2004) worked with fried chicken nuggets,
Vieira et al. (2015) evaluated popcorn-type Nile tilapia added
analyzed different types of starch (amylomaize, waxy corn, and
with 0.1% and 2% of cornstarch; these authors verified an increase
pregelatinized tapioca), and verified that the water retention
of over 90% in yield and an improvement in sensory parameters.
percentage of pregelatinized starch was significantly higher than
The yield of 98.86% observed in this study indicates that the
that of the other analyzed starches because of its water holding
pregelatinized starch promotes water absorption and improves the
capacity. The starch influences the parameters involved in the
quality of the final product due to its capacity of gelatinization
technological processes used in the food industry, such as texture
and its action as a thickening agent.
and water retention, which characterize most processed products
The values of pH and water activity are used to determine
(Denardin and Silva, 2008).
storage temperatures for meat products; values of pH <5.0 or Aw
The coefficient of determination was 0.824, which indicated that
0.91 do not recommend freezing for storage (Terra et al., 2007).
82,4% of the experimental data were explained by the statistical
The values determined in this study recommended freezing at
design and the objective function was adjusted appropriately to
-18 °C for the conservation of tilapia MSM patties.
the experimental data. Therefore, the model can be used to predict
the shear force data in tilapia MSM patties. Demonstrated by the
Scanning electron microscopy
analysis of variance that the predicted model (Equation 4) is valid
in the 95% confidence interval.
The starch and dextrin added in the emulsion preparation
The desirability parameters indicated that values above 1.5%
were well incorporated in the protein matrix; a large amount of
of pregelatinized starch decreased the value of shear force.
homogeneous and well-structured protein matrix was observed
in images from both treatments (A and C) and (B and D).
Because there was no significant dextrin effect, the use of 1.5%
pregelatinized starch and 1.0% dextrin are suggested in this study
Starch granule points were not observed in the C and D images
for the formulation of tilapia MSM patties.
(Figure 4), corresponding to the central point, demonstrating a
uniformity in the emulsification of pregelatinized starch, which
The comparison between the experimental means and those
estimated by the model did not present significant difference
shows high viscosity and water absorption.
by the Student’s t-test (p <0.05) confirming the validity of the
Air holes were observed distributed between the protein matrix
model used in this study.
in both treatments, demonstrating no influence from the addition
Silva et al. (2006) worked with several native starches and
of starch (Figure 4A and C).
starches modified for use in the food industry and found that the
solubility of dextrins and pregelatinized starches was 100% at
Sensory analysis
50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 ºC. In this study, the use of pregelatinized
The results show that the tilapia MSM patties, both optimized
starch improved the patties texture because of its a high viscosity
and control formulations, showed good acceptance by consumers.
and water solubility; therefore, it is indicated for applications in
All analyzes of attributes presented means above acceptability
which high water absorption is desired such as in meaty emulsions.
of 5, which refers to the indifferent concept according to Dutcosky
(2015). Angelini et al. (2013); Fogaça et al. (2015); Vieira et al.
Characterization of patties
(2015); Kimura et al. (2017) worked with restructured products
using tilapia MSM and also obtained good product acceptance.
A reduction in crude protein and moisture contents was observed
on the patties compared to the raw material (pressed tilapia
However, considering the values of texture and aroma, the
MSM); this reduction is related to the inclusion of ingredients
tilapia MSM patties with pregelatinized starch and dextrin
in the formulation of patties.
had better acceptance than the control sample. Therefore, the
Signor et al. Bol. Inst. Pesca 2019, 45(4): e512. DOI: 10.20950/1678-2305.2019.45.4.512
inclusion of pregelatinized starch in the formulation improves the
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with cornstarch for popcorn-type patties and found better product
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