Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 47 - 53, 2017
Doi: 10.20950/1678-2305.2017.47.53
COMMERCIAL FEED AND FROZEN Artemia NAUPLII FOR CURIMATÃ-PACU
LARVAE IN FIRST FEEDING*
Andre Lima FERREIRA
1
; Marianne SCHORER¹; Marcelo Mattos PEDREIRA¹; Thaís Garcia
SANTOS¹; Edson Vieira SAMPAIO
2
; Jose Claudio Epaminondas dos SANTOS²
ABSTRACT
The objective of this work was to evaluate the supply of frozen Artemia nauplii, commercial ration,
and co-feed with frozen Artemia nauplii and commercial ration on the productive performance and
water quality in the larviculture of curimatã-pacu Prochilodus argenteus. The larvae were cultivated
for 21 days under the following feed treatments: 100F (100% commercial feed); 67F33A (67%
commercial feed, and 33% fronzen Artemia nauplii); 34F66A (34% commercial feed, and 66% frozen
Artemia nauplii); and 100A (100% frozen Artemia nauplii). The larvae, submitted to the feed
treatments, did not differ in performance, survival, weight, total and standard lengths, Fulton’s
condition factor and specific growth rate. Commercial ration increased ammonia concentrations,
impairing water quality, while Artemia supply provided low concentrations of ammonia, partially
due to easy cleaning. Therefore, frozen Artemia nauplii should be used in the curimatã-pacu
larviculture.
Keywords: Prochilodus argenteus; exogenous feeding; first feeding; weaning
RAÇÃO COMERCIAL E NÁUPLIOS DE Artemia CONGELADOS NA PRIMEIRA
ALIMENTAÇÃO DE LARVAS DE CURIMATÃ-PACU
RESUMO
Objetivou-se avaliar o fornecimento de náuplios de Artemia congelada, ração comercial e co-
alimentação com náuplios de Artemia congelada e ração comercial no desempenho produtivo e
qualidade da água na larvicultura de curimatã-pacu Prochilodus argenteus. As larvas foram
cultivadas durante 21 dias, sob os seguintes tratamentos alimentares: 100F (100% ração comercial);
67F33A (67% de ração comercial e 33% de náuplios de Artemia congelada); 34F66A (34 de ração
comercial e 66% de náuplios de Artemia congelada); e 100A (100% de náuplios de Artemia
congelada). As larvas, submetidas aos tratamentos alimentares, não diferiram no desempenho,
sobrevivência, peso, comprimentos total e padrão, fator de condição de Fulton e taxa de
crescimento específico. O fornecimento de ração comercial aumentou as concentrações de amônia,
prejudicando a qualidade da água, enquanto que o fornecimento de Artemia proporcionou baixas
concentrações de amônia, parcialmente devido a fácil limpeza. Portanto, pode-se empregar
náuplios de Artemia congelado na larvicultura do curimatã-pacu.
Palavras-chave: Prochilodus argenteus; alimentação exógena; primeira alimentação; transição da
dieta
Original Article/Artigo Científico: Recebido em 15/11/2016 Aprovado em 28/06/2017
1
Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Rod. MGT 367, km 583, 5000 - Alto da Jacuba -
CEP: 39100-000 Diamantina MG Brazil. e-mail: andrelimazootecnista@gmail.com (corresponding author)
2
Companhia de Desenvolvimento dos Vales do São Francisco e Parnaíba (CODEVASF)
* Financial support: Banco do Nordeste (FUNDECI 2012/0324); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais
(FAPEMIG) (APQ-01215-12).
48 FERREIRA et al.
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 47 - 53, 2017
INTRODUCTION
The curima-pacu Prochilodus argenteus
(SPIX and AGASSIZ, 1829) is an endemic fish
species from the São Francisco River basin that is
of high economic and environmental importance
(GUIMARÃES et al., 2017). This specie has a
several popular names: curimbatá, xira, bambá or
zulega, with features as large scales at the body,
except in the head, and long spindle-shaped
body. This specie has a preference to live in lotic
environments, and has an omnivorous and
detritivorous habits, with a good acceptability of
commercial feed, aquatic algae and decomposing
organic matter (CEMIG/CETEC, 2000; ITUASSÚ
et al., 2004).
There is a constant concern to improve fish
larviculture and fingerlings production
technology for Brazilian native fish. The process
which the larvae begin to accept commercial feed,
leaving the habit to feed the natural food (live
food), is called dietary transition or "weaning"
(ROCHA et al., 2008). This is a critical stage of
larval rearing, with a great possibility of high
mortality (CONCEIÇÃO et al., 2009). Therefore,
the success of this stage is linked to knowledge of
the digestive capacity of the larva, and the
accurate time for the start offering commercial
feed, and feed quality (GAWLICKA et al., 2000).
Fish larvae of native species have an
immature digestive system (PORTELLA and
DABROWSKI, 2008), and have a great difficulty
in assimilating the commercial feed in early
days of life (PEDREIRA et al., 2008; DIEMER et al.,
2012). For this reason, the live food that undergoes
the process of autolysis when digested, being thus
more easily assimilated by fish larvae, are widely
used (PORTELLA and DABROWSKI, 2008;
MANDAL et al., 2009; DAS et al., 2012).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the
frozen Artemia nauplii, commercial feed, and co-
feeding frozen Artemia nauplii with commercial
feed on growth performance and water quality for
curimatã-pacu hatchery.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted from January
to February, 2015 (totaling 21 days) at the
Hydrobiology and Fish Culture Station at the
Companhia de Desenvolvimento dos Vales do
São Francisco e Parnaíba (CODEVASF), Três
Marias City - MG, (8º1223S and 45º14'30"W).
Curimatã-pacu (P. argenteus) larvae with five
days after hatching were used (mean weight 1.80
± 0.1 mg and mean total length 6.46 ± 0.1 mm) at
the first feeding day of the trial. Larvae were
individually counted and distributed into a static
system with partial water renovation, constituted
with 20 L aquarium, at 10 larvae L
-1
density,
totalizing 80 larvae aquarium
-1
, provided with
constant aeration and natural photoperiod
(12L:12D). Aquariums were cleaned twice a day,
(the first cleaning after the first feeding time, and
the second after the last feeding time), performing
daily 20% exchange of the water total volume.
The experimental design was completely
randomized with four treatments and five
replications: 100F (100% - commercial feed [F]);
67F33A (67% - commercial feed, and 33% - frozen
Artemia nauplii [A]); 34F66A (34% - commercial
feed, and 66% - frozen Artemia nauplii); and 100A
(100% frozen Artemia nauplii). Larvae were fed
four times day
-1
: at 7:00, 10:00, 13:00 and 16:00
hours. Commercial feed and Artemia was offered
for larvae ad libitum.
The calculated composition (manufacturer
data) from the mash commercial feed (0.05
granulometry 0.22 mm) was: dry matter (898.1 g
kg
-1
), crude protein (550.0 g kg
-1
), digestible energy
(3600 kcal kg
-1
), crude fiber (14.5 g kg
-1
), phosphorus
total (10.5 g kg
-1
), available phosphorus (7.5 g kg
-1
),
total calcium (10.0 g kg
-1
), total lysine (22.0 g kg
-1
),
the total methionine plus cystine (14.3 g kg
-1
) and
starch (250.0 g kg
-1
). Ingredients used for the
preparation of feed were: soy protein concentrate
(386.3 g kg
-1
) wheat flour (230.0 g kg
-1
) 60 corn
gluten (192.0 g kg
-1
), corn ground (54.0 g kg
-1
),
45% soybean meal (50.0 g kg
-1
) 60% fish meal
(20.7 g kg
-1
), dicalcium phosphate (30.0 g kg
- 1
),
limestone (1.0 g kg
-1
) L-lysine HCl (1.6 g kg
-1
)
soy oil (20.0 g kg
-1
), vitamin-mineral premix 1
(8.0 g kg
-1
), vitamin C (8.0 g kg
-1
) and BHT (0.02 g
kg
-1
) a total of 100.0 g kg
-1
.
Fifteen larvae of the each treatment were
sampled and measured on the 10th day; at the end
of the experiment (day 21), 75 larvae were
sampled and measured in each treatment. The
body weight was obtained with an analytical
balance 1.0 mg (Scientech AS 210, China), and the