Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 113 - 120, 2017
Doi: 10.20950/1678-2305.2017.113.120
PERFORMANCE OF HYBRID CATFISH SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT PROTEIN
LEVELS
Gilcler Alcino Sabaini de SOUZA
1
; Luciana Kimie Savay da SILVA
2
; Fernando Franceschini
MACEDO
1
; Nelson Mauricio LOPERA-BARRERO
3
; Janessa Sampaio de ABREU
1
; Felipe
Pinheiro de SOUZA
3
; Jayme Aparecido POVH
4
ABSTRACT
In this study, we investigated the performance of hybrid catfish (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x
Leiarius marmoratus) fed with feeds containing 32% or 40% crude protein (CP). We analyzed the
performance, yield in whole gutted fish, fillet yield and visceral fat index. The experimental units
comprised 108 fish with average initial weights of 272.12 ± 74.71 g (32% CP) and 231.97 ± 87.70 g
(40% CP). The experimental period was 182 days. Final weight, body height, body width, yield of
whole gutted fish and visceral fat content differed (P<0.05) between treatments, with respective
values of 1,016.63 g, 7.17 cm, 6.88 cm, 86.06% and 3.28% for the lower protein level; and 1,152.22 g,
7.67 cm, 7.27 cm, 84.44% and 4.81% for the higher protein level. The treatment with 40% CP promotes
better performance of hybrid catfish. However, this treatment reduces the yield of whole gutted
fish and increases the visceral fat index.
Keywords: fish feeding; Leiarius marmoratus; Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum
DESEMPENHO DO PINTADO HÍBRIDO SUBMETIDO A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE
PROTEÍNA
RESUMO
Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho do pintado híbrido (Pseudoplatystoma
reticulatum x Leiarius marmoratus) submetido à alimentação com 32% ou 40% de proteína bruta (PB)
na ração, analisando-se o desempenho, rendimento do peixe inteiro eviscerado, rendimento do filé
e o índice gordura visceral. Foram estocados 108 peixes nas unidades experimentais, com peso
inicial médio de 272,12 ± 74,71 g (32% de PB) e 231,97 ± 87,70 g (40% de PB). O período
experimental foi de 182 dias. O peso final, altura do corpo, largura do corpo, rendimento em peixe
inteiro eviscerado e índice de gordura visceral diferiram (P<0,05) entre os tratamentos,
apresentando valores de 1.016,63 g, 7,17 cm, 6,88 cm, 86,06% e 3,28% para o menor nível de
proteína, e 1.152,22 g, 7,67 cm, 7,27 cm, 84,44% e 4,81% para o maior nível de proteína, respectivamente.
O tratamento com 40% PB proporciona maior desempenho para o pintado híbrido. Todavia, este
tratamento diminui o rendimento do peixe inteiro eviscerado e aumenta o acúmulo de gordura
visceral.
Palavras-chave: alimentação de peixes; Leiarius marmoratus; Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum
Scientific Note / Nota Científica: Recebida em 01/11/2016 Aprovado em 18/07/2017
1
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Faculdade de Agronomia, Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Av.
Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367 CEP: 78060-900 Cuiabá MT Brazil
2
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Faculdade de Nutrição
3
Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), Departamento de Zootecnia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal
Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, Rod. PR-45, km 380 CEP: 86051-990 Londrina PR Brazil
4
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Av. Senador
Filinto Muller, 2443 CEP: 79074-460 - Campo Grande MS Brazil. e-mail: jayme.povh@ufms.br (correspondig author)
114 SOUZA et al.
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 113 - 120, 2017
INTRODUCTION
The genus Pseudoplatystoma has three known
species, namely Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum
(Essequibo and Suriname Rivers), P. tigrinum
(Amazon River) and P. corruscans (Paraná and
São Francisco Rivers), and five species have been
recently described, namely P. punctifer (Amazon
River), P. orinocoense (Orinoco River), P. reticulatum
(Central Amazon and Paraná Rivers), P. metaense
(Orinoco River) and P. magdaleniatum (Magdalena
River) (BUITRAGOSUÁREZ and BURR, 2007).
Although species of the genus Pseudoplatystoma
show great potential for fish farming, the rearing
of purebred species is extremely restricted to some
regions, and factors such as high cannibalism rate
in the initial stage and carnivorous feeding
habits hinder the rearing of these fish, which
leads to interest in hybridization (MATEO et al.,
2008).
In the list of classical methods of crossbreeding,
interspecific hybridization is one of the most
widely used in fish farming and, for many
years, the main catfish reared in Brazil was
the cachapinta (female of P. reticulatum x male
P. corruscans) (LOPERA-BARRERO et al., 2011).
To reduce production costs and increase
productivity, many fish farmers have used hybrid
species obtained from cross-species of the genus
Pseudoplatystoma with other Siluriformes with
omnivorous feeding habit (CAMPOS, 2010).
Among these, the species Leiarius marmoratus
stands out for having an omnivorous feeding
habit and being one of the largest fish in the South
American drainage basins (FORTES-SILVA et al.,
2016). It is a South American catfish that inhabits
the basins of the Amazon, Essequibo and Orinoco
rivers (LOPERA-BARRERO et al., 2011).
The use of hybrids of carnivorous species of
high commercial value, such as P. reticulatum,
with omnivorous species, such as L. marmoratus,
can minimize cannibalism problems (MATEO et al.,
2008). This hybrid is commonly known as the
hybrid catfish. The increase in production of this
hybrid compared with other catfish is attributed
to the easiness of food training and omnivorous
feeding habit (LOPERA-BARRERO et al., 2011).
Therefore, this hybrid has been increasingly
produced on a commercial scale in fish farms,
mainly in the central-western region of Brazil. The
farming of sorubim (pure species of the genus
Pseudoplatystoma and their hybrids) has considerably
increased after the use of the hybrid originating
from the cross between Pseudoplatystoma spp. and
L. marmoratus. Its production rose from 2,486.5 t in
the year 2010 (BRASIL, 2012) to 8,824.3 t in 2011
(BRASIL, 2013) and 18,354.6 t in 2015, which made
this the fifth most largely produced fish in Brazil
(IBGE, 2016).
Establishing the protein requirements is
essential in the formulation of adequate diets to
improve fish performance (HONORATO et al.,
2014) and to reduce nitrogen excretion, one of the
most polluting nutrients in the aquatic medium
(BOTARO et al., 2007). In this regard, it is very
important to determine the right concentration of
protein for the production of hybrid catfish.
Currently, there is little scientific information
about the nutritional aspect of the hybrid catfish.
Only a few studies exist evaluating protein levels
in the initial production stage (fish with 20 to
400 g), adopting protein levels of 20.8 to 39.5%
(SOUZA et al., 2014), 42.0% (PRIETO-GUEVARA
et al., 2015), 42.9 to 43.3% (BERNARDES et al.,
2016) and 45% (FARIA et al., 2011), and in the final
production stage (fish with 900 to 1,287 g) the
level of 40% (FARIA et al., 2011). There is also a
large divergence about the protein level required
for this fish. It is known that inadequate protein
levels in fish feeding can influence performance,
carcass yield and accumulation of visceral fat.
For that reasons this study evaluated the
performance, yield of whole gutted fish, fillet
yield and visceral fat index of hybrid catfish
(P. reticulatum x L. marmoratus) consuming feed
containing 32% and 40% crude protein.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out at the
Experimental Station of Fish Farming at the
Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT),
located in the municipality of Santo Antônio do
Leverger, Mato Grosso State, 34 km from the
capital city Cuiabá MT, Brazil. The experiment
was conducted with the approval by the Ethics
Committee on Animal Use (CEUA) of UFMT
(Case No. 23108.009009/14-8).
The experimental design used was completely
randomized, with the protein level as the
Performance of hybrid catfish subjected to different protein 115
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 113 - 120, 2017
analyzed factor and the levels 32% and 40% of
crude protein (CP) as treatments, which were
conducted in three replicates. The fingerlings of
hybrid catfish (female P. reticulatum x male L.
marmoratus) used in the experiment were reared
in January 2015, according to the breeding
protocol recommended by ZANIBONI-FILHO
and WEINGARTNER (2007). These fish were
stocked in six experimental units of 133 m
2
(1.0-m-
deep ponds) with a water renewal rate of 5.0% per
day. In each experimental unit, 18 fish were
distributed randomly, estimated density to obtain
a final biomass of 0.1 to 0.5 kg m
-2
- adequate for
production under low water renewal, totaling
108 fish.
Prior to the experiment, the fish were
subjected to an acclimatization period of 15 days,
allocated in the experimental units and receiving
a similar management. Afterwards, the fish
allocated in the experimental units were fed twice
daily (9:00 h and 16:00 h) with commercial
extruded feed (VB Alimentos) containing
(according to the manufacturer) 32% crude
protein (4,099.0 kcal kg
-1
gross energy, 6.0% ether
extract, 3.0% crude fiber, 10% mineral matter, 90%
dry matter) or 40% crude protein (4,317.5 kcal kg
-1
gross energy, 7.0% ether extract, 3.0% crude fiber,
10% mineral matter, 90% dry matter) up to satiety,
during 182 days. The two feed contained 3.0%
calcium, 0.8% phosphorus and a premix (2.0 mg kg
-1
folic acid; 40 mg kg
-1
pantothenic acid; 1,000
mcg kg
-1
biotin; 16 mg kg
-1
copper; 0.60 mg kg
-1
choline; 110.56 mg kg
-1
iron; 0.80 mg kg
-1
iodine;
30 mg kg
-1
manganese; 0.20 mg kg
-1
cobalt; 40 mg
kg
-1
niacin; 0.60 mg kg
-1
selenium; 8,000 IU kg
-1
vitamin A; 15 mg kg
-1
pyridoxine; 30 mcg kg
-1
vitamin B12; 20 mg kg
-1
riboflavin; 10 mg kg
-1
thiamine; 336 mg kg
-1
vitamin C; 4,000 IU kg
-1
vitamin D3; 160 IU kg
-1
vitamin E; 4.0 mg kg
-1
vitamin K3; and 140 mg kg
-1
zinc).
The initial average fish weight was 272.12 ±
74.71 g for the treatment with 32% CP in the feed
and 231.97 ± 87.70 g for treatment with 40% CP in
the feed. During the experimental period,
biometric measurements were performed at the
onset and at 42, 77, 114, 147 and 182 days of
experiment to determine the following variables:
weight, total length (measurement from the
anterior end of the mouth to the end of the caudal
fin), standard length (measurement from the
anterior end of the mouth to the start of the caudal
fin), body width (measured at the beginning of the
dorsal fin) and body height (measured at the
beginning of the dorsal fin).
Before the biometric measurements, the fish
were subjected to a 24-h fasting period. The
biometrics procedure included the capture of the
fish with a trawl and their transfer to a plastic box
containing 100 L of water for anesthesia in eugenol
(50 mg L
-1
) for 5 min. The fish were then removed
from the box to obtain the weight (Toledo 9094
scale) and for morphometric measurements.
At the end of the 182-d experimental period,
the survival was determined and the following
performance parameters were calculated: daily
weight gain [(final average weight initial average
weight)/experimental period], biomass gain (final
biomass initial biomass) and apparent feed
conversion (feed intake/biomass gain).
At the end of the experiment, all fish were
slaughtered and cut to removal and weigh the
viscera, head, skin and fillet. The yield of whole
gutted fish [(whole fish weight without viscera x
100)/whole fish weight] and fillet yield [(fillet
weight x 100)/whole fish weight] were evaluated
from whole fish. To assess the visceral fat deposition,
fat was separated from the viscera and weighed
individually to obtain the visceral fat index [(fat
weight × 100)/whole fish weight].
During the experiment, the following water
quality variables were monitored biweekly in all
experimental units: transparency (Secchi disk),
temperature, dissolved oxygen (Oximeter YSI 55),
pH, total ammonia, nitrite, alkalinity and
hardness (colorimetric tests - Alphakit
®
).
The results were subjected to analysis of
variance (ANOVA) using SAS software version
9.0 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA), and
expressed by the mean and standard deviation.
When necessary the means were tested by
Tukey’s test, at a significance level of 5.0%.
RESULTS
The water characteristics during the 182 days
of experiment did not present critical levels to the
tropical fish production (Table 1). Additionally,
there was no variation in water characteristics
between treatments.
116 SOUZA et al.
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 113 - 120, 2017
Table 1. Water quality variables analyzed in tanks used for rearing hybrid catfish (P. reticulatum x
L. marmoratus) consuming feed containing 32% or 40% crude protein for 182 days of experiment.
Variables
Mean ± standard deviation
Temperature (°C)
27.85 ± 1.69
Dissolved oxygen (mg L
-1
)
5.43 ± 0.60
pH
6.72 ± 0.76
Total ammonia (mg L
-1
)
0.11 ± 0.13
Nitrite (mg L
-1
)
0.01 ± 0.03
Alkalinity (mg CaCO
3
L
-1
)
42.34 ± 16.88
Hardness (mg CaCO
3
L
-1
)
35.63 ± 11.67
Transparency (cm)
44.61 ± 10.32
Initially, weight and morphometric traits of
the hybrid catfish were similar between
treatments, but at the end of the experimental
period, weight, body width and body height
were higher (P<0.05) for the higher-protein
treatment (Table 2).
Daily weight gain, biomass gain, apparent
feed conversion and survival of hybrid catfish
were similar between the treatments with higher
and lower levels of crude protein in the feed
(Table 3).
Results for yield of whole gutted fish were
higher (P<0.05) in the treatment with 32% CP in
comparison with that with 40% CP (Table 4).
However, for fillet yield, there was no significant
difference between the tested treatments. Visceral
fat index was lower (P<0.05) in the fish fed 32%
CP than in those fed 40% CP.
Table 2. Weight, total length (TL), standard length (SL), body width (BW) and body height (BH) of hybrid
catfish (P. reticulatum x L. marmoratus) consuming feed containing 32% or 40% crude protein (CP) for 182
days of experiment.
Variable
Initial*
Final*
32% CP
32% CP
40% CP
Weight (g)
272.12 ± 74.71ª
1,016.63 ± 250.59
b
1,152.22 ± 338.50
a
TL (cm)
32.77 ± 2.85ª
48.83 ± 3.85
a
49.66 ± 4.97
a
SL (cm)
27.27 ± 2.43ª
39.02 ± 3.77
a
38.87 ± 3.66
a
BW (cm)
4.65 ± 0.70ª
7.17 ± 0.89
b
7.67 ± 1.08
a
BH (cm)
4.25 ± 0.60ª
6.88 ± 0.81
b
7.27 ± 1.01
a
*Mean ± standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter in the rows in the stages (initial and final) indicate that
the treatments do not differ by Tukey’s test (α=0.05).
Table 3. Daily weight gain, biomass gain, apparent feed conversion and survival of hybrid catfish
(P. reticulatum x L. marmoratus) consuming feed containing 32% or 40% crude protein (CP) for 182 days of
experiment.
Variable
Crude protein (CP) level in the feed (%)*
32% CP
40% CP
Daily weight gain (g day
-1
)
3.75 ± 0.25
5.4 1.51
Biomass gain (kg)
10.04 ± 0.67
14.61 ± 4.08
Apparent feed conversion
2.82 ± 0.05
2.72 ± 0.23
Survival (%)
100.0
100.0
*Mean ± standard deviation.
Performance of hybrid catfish subjected to different protein 117
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 113 - 120, 2017
Table 4. Yield of whole gutted fish, fillet yield and visceral fat index of hybrid catfish (P. reticulatum x L.
marmoratus) consuming feed containing 32% or 40% crude protein (CP) for 182 days of experiment.
Variable
Crude protein (CP) level in the feed (%)*
32% CP
40% CP
Yield of whole gutted fish (%)
86.06 ± 0.94
a
84.44 ± 0.65
b
Fillet yield (%)
46,27 ± 0.86
a
47.12 ± 0.76
a
Visceral fat index (%)
3.28 ± 1.49
a
4.81 ± 1.76
a
*Mean ± standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter in the rows indicate
that treatments do not differ by Tukey’s test (α= 0.05).
DISCUSSION
The water quality variables analyzed during
the experimental period are in accordance with
recommendations of CAMPOS (2010) for rearing
tropical fish. Additionally, there was no variation
between treatments that could interfere with the
treatments.
The fish fed the higher level of protein
exhibited a higher final weight (19.1% higher)
than those receiving the lower protein level. There
is lack of studies on hybrid catfish evaluating
production in a similar period. Nevertheless, the
obtained final weight can be considered
significant enough for a rearing period of 182
days, mainly for the treatment with a higher
protein level.
TEIXEIRA et al. (2013) evaluated the hybrid
cachapinta (P. reticulatum x P. corruscans), and
observed a higher final weight in the treatment
with 36% CP in relation to that with 40% CP. For
L. marmortus, MURILLO-PACHECO et al. (2012)
observed that 34% CP was better than the other
levels, indicating a reduced need for protein for
this omnivorous species. The results obtained by
those authors for carnivorous (TEIXEIRA et al.,
2013) and omnivorous fish (MURILLO-PACHECO
et al., 2012) suggest that the CP level for weight
gain may be lower than 40%, especially
considering that the results were obtained in the
initial production phase, in which the protein
requirement is greater. This was demonstrated in
a study with hybrid catfish by SOUZA et al.
(2014), who found similar final weights in
treatments with 34.06 and 39.52% CP (initial
production stage). However, results of our study
indicate better performance obtained with the
feed containing a higher protein level.
The total and standard lengths were similar
at the beginning and end of the experiment,
indicating that the protein level did not influence
these features. However, the fish width and
height after 182 days of experiment were better
in the treatment with a higher protein level,
conditions that confirm the better weight gain of
fish fed feed with a higher protein level. These
data reveal that the treatment with 40% CP promoted
greater growth in the fish circumference than in
their length.
The daily weight gain obtained in this
experiment (32% CP: 3.75 g day
-1
; 40% CP: 5.41 g
day
-1
) was greater than the 2.34 and 3.01 g day
-1
observed by CRUZ-CASALLAS et al. (2010) and
the 1.64 and 3.20 g day
-1
reported by MURILLO-
PACHECO et al. (2012), both of whom evaluating
L. marmoratus fed 30% CP and 24 to 34% CP,
respectively. On the other hand, SCORVO FILHO
et al. (2008) found values similar to those in this
work for P. corruscans fed 40% CP, for which a
daily weight gain of 4.05 g day
-1
was observed.
TEIXEIRA et al. (2013) observed, in the cachapinta
hybrid, a daily weight gain of 4.24, 3.79, 2.74, 1.84
and 1.05 g day
-1
, for the dietary CP levels of 36, 40,
44, 48, 52%, respectively, indicating that very high
levels affected the daily weight gain. Regardless of
the CP level in the feed, the daily weight gain
observed for the hybrid catfish in this experiment
can be considered high in relation to that obtained
for other Siluriform fish.
In the initial production stage of hybrid
catfish, PRIETO-GUEVARA et al. (2015) and
BERNARDES et al. (2016) found daily weight
gain values from 1.1 to 1.7 (42.1% CP) and 2.7 to 2.9
(42.9 to 43.5% CP), respectively. In an experiment
with hybrid catfish using feed with 40% CP,
FARIA et al. (2011) observed a higher daily
118 SOUZA et al.
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 113 - 120, 2017
weight gain as the fish weight increased, obtaining
0.7 to 1.0 g day
-1
in the initial stage (weight from
30.8 to 58.3 g) and 5.0 to 8.9 g day
-1
in the final
stage (weight from 399.5 to 1,287.1 g). These
authors observed a decrease in daily weight gain
as rearing density was elevated. These results
indicate that daily weight gain is highly
influenced by the production stage and density,
which makes it difficult to compare studies for
these variables. Furthermore, factors like feeding
management and water quality conditions can also
affect this variable. In this regard, comparisons
between studies must be carefully analyzed.
However, the values obtained in the above-
mentioned works suggest great potential for daily
weight gain in hybrid catfish.
Similar to the daily weight gain, the biomass
gain did not increase significantly with the
increased protein level in the feed. There is a
dearth of scientific information on biomass gain in
different rearing systems for hybrid catfish.
FARIA et al. (2011) observed that the biomass in
the final rearing stage (final weight between 901.2
and 1,287.1 g) ranged from 5,148.5 to 14,419.5 kg
at densities of 10-40 fish m
-3
, respectively. The
biomass gain is relative to the production system
and is greater in more-intensive systems. The
rearing density used in the present study was low,
because the water renewal rate was not high
(around 5% per day). The recommended density
for a low water flow is between 0.1 and 0.5 kg m
-2
(LOPERA-BARRERO et al., 2011). Larger biomasses
in both treatments could be obtained with an
increase in water flow.
The apparent feed conversion was similar
between fish treated with 32% CP (2.82) or 40%
CP (2.72). Although the values were relatively
high compared with those achieved for
omnivorous (around 1.5) and carnivorous (2.0)
fish, it may have been caused by the feeding
method, which used satiety to maximize weight
gain for both protein levels. Lower apparent
feed conversion values (between 1.49 and 1.60)
were obtained by TURRA et al. (2009) and
HONORATO et al. (2014) for cachapinta (between
1.38 and 1.52) in the early rearing stage. However,
SCORVO-FILHO et al. (2008) and LIRANÇO et al.
(2011) found, in P. corruscans, apparent feed
conversion ranging from 4.6 to 5.2 and 3.09 to
4.15, respectively, in different production systems
(semi-intensive: 0.25 to 0.75 fish m
-3
; intensive
22 to 133 fish m
-3
). These results indicate that
apparent feed conversion can vary depending on
the fish species, stage, rearing density and feeding
procedures. In the experimental conditions of
this work, CP levels did not influence apparent
feed conversion.
The higher yield of whole gutted fish
obtained in the 32% CP treatment indicates that
the higher final weight of the 40% CP treatment
was not fully related to a greater flesh increase.
This was demonstrated by the analysis of fillet
yield, which did not differ across the treatments,
indicating an increase in the viscera of the fish
receiving a higher protein level.
In fact, the visceral fat index of hybrid catfish
was 1.53% higher in fish treated with 40% CP (4.81%)
in relation to those treated with 32% CP (3.28%).
This result indicates greater accumulation of
visceral fat in the fish fed a higher protein level,
confirming that the higher final weight of the
treatment with 40% CP was not fully converted to
a greater meat increase. Therefore, higher protein
level contributed to lower yield in whole gutted
fish, resulting in market loss, since slaughterhouses
have currently penalized the excess of visceral
fat (above 3%) due to lower income for the
processing unit.
Feeds with a low protein/energy ratio
promote the intake of a suboptimal quantity of
protein upon satiation, compromising weight gain
and promoting body fat accumulation (MEYER
and FRACALOSSI, 2004). However, the largest
amount of viscera and visceral fat was observed in
the treatment with 40% CP, which had a higher
protein/energy ratio (92.6 mg protein kcal
-1
) in
relation to the treatment with 32% CP (78.1 mg
protein kcal
-1
). This result may be related to a lack
of nutritional balancing of the feeds, which
reflects the need for determining the nutritional
requirements of hybrid catfish, which is inexistent
today. This was demonstrated in the study of
PRIETO-GUEVARA et al. (2015), who observed a
higher yield of whole gutted fish (92.4 to 93.5%)
in hybrid catfish using 103.5 mg protein kcal
-1
(42% CP and 4,058.3 kcal); and BERNARDES et al.
(2016), who did not find differences in the yield of
whole gutted fish (90.9 to 91.5%) in hybrid catfish
for the energy ratios of 80.5 mg CP kcal
-1
(42.9%
CP and 5,329.8 kcal), 79.4 mg CP kcal
-1
(43.1% CP
Performance of hybrid catfish subjected to different protein 119
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 113 - 120, 2017
and 5,425.4 kcal), 78.1 mg CP kcal
-1
(43.5% CP and
5,568.8 kcal) and 76.8 mg CP kcal
-1
(43.3% CP and
5,640.5 kcal).
Although the performance was superior in
the hybrid catfish consuming a higher protein
level, the lower yield of whole gutted fish and
greater accumulation of visceral fat in this
treatment can characterize lower financial return.
In this regard, other protein levels and other
nutrients should be tested for hybrid catfish to
produce better performance and yield of whole
gutted fish.
CONCLUSIONS
Feeding hybrid catfish diets with 40% crude
protein promotes greater growth in 182 days of
rearing. However, this feeding strategy also
promotes greater accumulation of visceral fat and
lower yield of gutted fish, indicating that further
studies are required for a better adjustment of the
levels and quality of protein and other nutrients.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the Grupo VB Alimentos,
Piscicultura Brycon and CAPES for the support in
the research development.
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