Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 107 - 112, 2017
Doi: 10.20950/1678-2305.2017.107.112
PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF CACHARA AND HYBRID CACHAPINTA*
Letícia Emiliani FANTINI
1
,
2
; Guilherme Nunes KINJO JUNIOR
2
; Rhayssa Silva PEREIRA
2
;
Luana Barbosa PIRES
1,2
; Ruy Alberto Caetano CORRÊA FILHO
1,2
; Jayme Aparecido POVH
1,2
ABSTRACT
This study aimed to compare the growth performance of surubins (cachara Pseudoplatystoma
reticulatum and hybrid cachapinta P. reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) produced in cages.
The experiment had a randomized design with two treatments and three replicates, with one cage
comprising an experimental unit, i.e., six cages in total. Fingerlings of the two genetic groups
(cachara and hybrid cachapinta) were fed twice a day with extruded feed for carnivorous fishes.
After 216 days of production, the growth parameters were evaluated, including total length, final
weight, final biomass, biomass gain, survival, and apparent feed conversion values. No differences
were found between cachara and cachapinta in the variables analyzed. In conclusion, cachara and
cachapinta produced in cages exhibit the same growth performances.
Keywords: cages; growth; Pseudoplatystoma; surubim
DESEMPENHO PRODUTIVO DO CACHARA E HÍBRIDO CACHAPINTA
RESUMO
Objetivou-se comparar o desempenho zootécnico do cachara, Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum, e do
híbrido cachapinta, P. reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, produzidos em tanques-rede.
Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e três repetições, sendo
que cada tanque-rede foi considerado uma unidade experimental, totalizando seis tanques-rede.
Alevinos dos dois grupos genéticos (cachara e cachapinta) foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia
com ração extrusada para peixes carnívoros. Após 216 dias de produção, os parâmetros zootécnicos
avaliados foram: comprimento total, peso final, biomassa final, ganho de biomassa, sobrevivência e
conversão alimentar aparente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas para as variáveis
analisadas entre cachara e cachapinta. Pode-se concluir que o cachara e cachapinta produzidos em
tanque-rede apresentam o mesmo desempenho zootécnico.
Palavras-chave: tanque-rede; crescimento; Pseudoplatystoma; surubim
Scientific Note/Nota Científica: Recebida em 05/12/2016 Aprovada em 13/06/2017
1
Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University (UFMS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science (FAMEZ), Animal
Science Graduate Program. Av. Senador Filinto Müller, 2443 Vila Ipiranga CEP: 79070-900 Campo Grande MS
Brazil. e-mail: leticia.emiliani@hotmail.com (corresponding author);
2
Aquaculture Study Group (AQUIMS) Mato Grosso do Sul Federal University (UFMS)
*
Financial support: Foundation for the Support and Development of Education, Science and Technology from the State of
Mato Grosso do Sul (FUNDECT; process 23/200.485/2014).
108 FANTINI et al.
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 107 - 112, 2017
INTRODUCTION
Surubins (pintado, cachara, and their hybrids)
that are adapted to production in cages exhibit
reasonable performance and survival within these
systems. Although some performance characteristics
might be elevated in excavated nursery ponds,
the biomass is usually higher in intensive cages
systems.
Fish production in cages provides an
alternative to conventional fish farming practices
for the practical use of water bodies that face
difficulties using these conventional methods
(CAMPOS et al., 2007). Cages positioned at sites
having large quantities of high-quality water
allow for the use of high storage densities
compared to fish production in ponds.
Cachapinta hybrids Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum
× Pseudoplatystoma corruscans have been produced
in Brazil with an aim to increase productivity
from heterosis, as there is an absence of genetic
improvement programs for these species.
Information comparing the performances of these
hybrid fishes with purebred fish during all
production stages is lacking. The hypothesis that
there are real gains from heterosis in the
performance characteristics of hybrids has caused
an increase in the use of these hybrids in Brazilian
fish farming; however, in many situations, this
hypothesis might not be true. Thus, the present
study aims to compare the growth performances
of cachara with those of hybrid cachapinta
produced in cages.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted using floating
cages placed in a 24-ha hill side pond in a
commercial fish farm located in Nova Alvorada
do Sul, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
(21°27'51''S and 54°23'3''W). Two groups of fish
were used: the pure species cachara (P.
reticulatum) and the hybrid cachapinta obtained
by cross breeding the female cachara (P.
reticulatum) with male pintado (P. corruscans).
Fingerlings of both groups of fish (mean weight of
60 g ± 0,005 were bought from a local commercial
hatchery and were originated from the spawning
of wild caught broodfish.
A randomized experimental design was
established with two treatments (cachara and
cachapinta) and three replicates, using six 13.5-m
3
cages. Three cages were stocked with cachara
at 144 fish per cage and three cages with
hybrid cachapinta at 127 fish per cage.
Fingerlings were acclimated in the cages for 14
days previous to the start of the experimental
period. Mean weigh of fish at the start of the
experiment were 75 ± 0,004 g and 85 ± 0,001 g
for cachara and cachapinta, respectively. The
unequal number of fish for each group was set
in order to start the experiment with equal fish
biomass in all cages. The experimental period
lasted for 216 days.
Water samples were collected monthly from
the dam at three points close to the cages, from
which alkalinity, hardness, and total ammonia
were evaluated, according to standard methods
(APHA, 2012). Temperature, dissolved oxygen,
and pH (monthly) analyses of the water were
conducted using an YSI ProPlus multiparameter
meter.
The fishes were fed twice a day, in the
morning and afternoon, with extruded feed for
carnivorous fishes. The ration amount offered to
the fish was based on the total biomass of each
cages, adjusted after the biometrics, where the
amount of feed was calculated based on the
decreasing biomass percentage, starting with 8%
and finishing with 3%. Feed with 40% crude
protein was used during the 30 to 800 g growth
stage and 38% crude protein was used during the
final stage, with more than 800 g (Table 1).
Seven biometrics were performed every 30
days in 20% of the fishes from each experimental
unit. Before the biometric analyses, fishes were
anesthetized with eugenol (Biodinâmica Química
e Farmacêutica LTDA) at a concentration of
50 mg L
-1
until the surgical anesthesia stage was
reached, as recommended by ROSS and ROSS
(1999). The biometric measurements were preceded
by a 24-h fasting. The procedures adopted in the
present study were approved by the Ethics
Committee on Animal Use CEUA/UFMS
(Protocol Nº 642/2014).
The growth characteristics evaluated included
total length TL (measurement from the anterior
end of the mouth to the end of the caudal fin);
Production performance of cachara and hybrid 109
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 107 - 112, 2017
final weight FW; final biomass FB; biomass
gain BG = (final biomass initial biomass);
survival SUR% = [(final number of fishes x
100)/Initial number of fishes]; and apparent feed
conversion AFC = (feed intake/biomass gain)
values.
Table 1. Pellet grain size and percentage composition of the feed used during production of cachara
(Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) and cachapinta (P. reticulatum × P. corruscans).
Variables
Weight class (g)
30 100
100 300
300 800
> 800
Pellet grain size (mm)
2 3
4 5
7 9
13 15
Crude protein (%)
40.0
40.0
40.0
38.0
Ether extract (%)
11.0
11.0
9.0
9.0
Fibrous material (%)
2.5
2.5
2.8
3.2
Mineral material (%)
14.0
14.0
10.0
12.5
Calcium (%)
3.5
3.5
3.5
3.8
Phosphorus (%)
2.0
2.0
1.8
2.0
DM (%)
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
The results of the experiment were adjusted
for a density of 135 fishes per cages. Since the
mean weight of the groups differed, the numbers
of fish were adjusted at the onset of the
experiment so that the density in kg per m
3
remained the same for each cage, irrespective of
the group present. Student’s t-test was used to
compare between groups for the dependent
variables, assuming equivalent variances (P>0.05).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The mean temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH,
and total ammonia values of the water during the
months of production were 25.80 ± 1.62 °C, 7.87 ±
0.18 mg L
-1
, 7.39 ± 0.24, and 0.11 ± 0.01 mg L
-1
,
respectively. These water characteristics are
within the recommended values for fish farming,
as advocated by ARANA (1997). The values for
alkalinity and total hardness of the water were
slightly below the ideal values recommended
by this author, being 15.02 ± 1.48 and 14.06 ±
2.27 mg L
-1
, respectively. There was no significant
difference between the two treatments (P>0.05).
Hybrid individuals exhibit high degree of
heterosis. However, higher heterosis does not
necessarily imply in better production performance.
Improvement in production for pure
Pseudoplatystoma species can be also achieved
through the development of a breeding program,
as occurs with other fishes and animals.
According to PONZONI et al. (2005), breeding
programs with several fish species have shown
that the resultant genetic changes can lead to a
15% growth rate per generation in well conducted
programs.
The growth characteristics of the groups,
cachara and cachapinta, produced in cages for
216 days were not statistically different (P>0.05)
(Table 2). Fish farmers have reported that
cachapinta perform better than the purebred
fishes, as they are more docile, receive inert
feed more easily, and exhibit higher growth
rates (CREPALDI et al., 2006; LOPERA-BARRERO
et al., 2011). OLIVEIRA et al. (2014) observed that
the cachapinta group exhibited better growth
performances after 150 days of production in
earth ponds, which examined the same groups
as those used in the present study. The cachapinta
group did not display different growth
performances to those of the cachara group in the
present study.
These results of total length in the present
study are similar to those obtained by SCORVO
FILHO et al. (2008) and LIRANÇO et al. (2011),
who observed values between 57.31 ± 6.42 cm and
45.10 ± 4.8 cm, respectively, for surubins within
the same weight range (1.556 ± 0.09 g for hybrid
and 1.639 ± 0.24 g for cachara).
SCORVO FILHO et al. (2008) obtained a
survival rate of 69.55 to 70.56% while working
with pintados in cages. In a previous study
examining surubim (Pseudoplatystoma spp.),
110 FANTINI et al.
Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo, 44(vol. esp.): 107 - 112, 2017
TURRA et al. (2009) observed higher biomass
with increasing density, although the weight
gain rate decreased and feed conversion and
survival rate remained constant.
Table 2. Mean values standard deviation) of the performance parameters in cachara (Pseudoplatystoma
reticulatum) and cachapinta (P. reticulatum × P. corruscans) genetic groups produced in net-tanks for 216 days.
Genetic group
Cachapinta
Cachara
54.53 ± 0.77
58.27 ± 2.32
1.556 ± 0.09
1.639 ± 0.24
185.35 ± 18.66
199.43 ± 51.43
173.81 ± 19.38
189.28 ± 51.75
92.97 ± 5.63
84.74 ± 9.89
03.15 ± 0.47
03.34 ± 1.04
Means followed by the same letter in the rows do not differ by Student t-
test (P>0.05), assuming equivalent variances.
The genotype-environment interaction might
influence cachapinta production, where in certain
situations the hybrid may exhibit enhanced
growth characteristics compared to the purebred
species (BENTSEN et al., 2012), although this
might not occur in other situations (KHAW et al.,
2012). According to GJEDREM and BARANSKI
(2009), it is very difficult to predict systematically
the results that will be obtained from the hybrids.
The feed efficiency in fishes is affected by the
species, stock density, production system, feed
used, water quality, feed protein level, and
production stage (ARBELÁEZ-ROJAS et al., 2002).
In the evaluated genetic groups, the AFC values
were similar, indicating that hybridization did
not lead to an improved AFC value. Similar
results were obtained by ZANARDI et al. (2008)
who observed AFC values for pintado between
2.37 and 3.94. This result is contrary to the
hypothesis that this hybrid is better than pure
cachara.
Currently, different surubim hybrids are
produced, since these can be obtained from eight
Pseudoplatystoma species (BUITRAGO-SÚAREZ
and BURR 2007) and their hybrids, which are
prolific (PORTO-FORESTI et al., 2008). This
reveals the potential for great differences in the
produced genetic groups, which might be
reflected in the differences observed in growth
performance. Additionally, it is difficult to
distinguish the different hybrids of surubins from
each other, since the spotted pattern and other
characteristics do not allow confidence in the
determination of the species involved in the cross
breeding. To overcome this problem, VAINI et al.
(2014) recommends molecular analysis (RFLP-
RCR molecular marker) to determine the specific
species of these genera and hybrids. The
comparison between different genetic groups
must be carefully analyzed, since it depends on
the analyzed characteristics with the possible
genetic effects of parental fishes and the
genotypeenvironment interaction.
CONCLUSION
Cachara and cachapinta produced in cages
exhibited similar growth performances.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank FUNDECT Foundation for the
Support and Development of Education, Science
and Technology from the State of Mato Grosso do
Sul for financial support for this project.
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